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Antwerp (BE)

City profile

Antwerp is the largest city in the region of Flanders and the second largest city in Belgium, after Brussels. Antwerp takes in a central position in the region of Flanders and is located at the river Scheldt, which is linked to the North Sea. The city contains a major sea port area. The surrounding area is flat, and covered by agricultural land and some scattered forest. 

The covering area is 204km² and has a population of 511,716 (city) inhabitants, the metropolitan area counts around 1,000,000 people. The population density is 2496 inhabitants per km².

The current Climate Plan (2011) of the city of Antwerp does only make a small reference to adaptation but there is currently no actual adaptation plan.

But Antwerp is one of the first cities that signed ‘the Mayors Adapt’ and thereby takes the engagement to develop a climate adaptation plan. 

According to a recent report by the EEA ( ) Antwerp is highly vulnerable to urban heat stress (more so than eg London or Paris, according to this report), given its very high degree of soil sealing and the lack of green/blue areas.

This issue was also brought to the attention of the public in the newspapers ( Measurements conducted by a study that the city assigned to VITO show a strong heat island effect, with observed urban-rural differences as large as 7-8 °C.

Climate type

Maritime Temperate Climate


Challenges and goals

An overview of the main user requirements for mapping the impact of climate change on urban societies is given below.  The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is analysed for Antwerp.

The current Building Code imposes green roofs and a degree of permeability of gardens. This is obliged for every new construction and large renovation.  The ‘Ecohouse’ of Antwerp promotes ‘Vertical gardens’ and ‘Roof top gardens’

1.   Scenarios linked to urban planning and existing urban plans/projects

  • Effect of the urban heat island (UHI) on urban planning both today and in the future;
  • Impacts of green roofs linked to potential green roof map/plan
  •  Impacts of the change in albedo (reflectivity) of buildings (e.g. through change to green roof type);
  •  Impacts of city expansion on climate change (e.g. projected Land Use Land Cover (LULC)).

2.   Scenarios using projected population figures:

  • Effects of the densification of the population and development of new areas of settlement;
  • Impacts on the vulnerable population of the cities (e.g. focussing on young children in schools and areas of elderly populations).

Maps and datasets

Information about maps and datasets can be found @data system of the WP4.2. Maps and results are available to project members and end-users only (internal area).


Griet Lambrechts and Lieve Custers
Advisors Urban Sustainability

City of Antwerp
Francis Wellesplein 1
2018 Antwerp Belgium

Tel: + 32 3 338 11 57 (G. Lambrechts)
Tel: + 32 3 338 75 22 (L. Custers)
Fax:+32 3 338 20 30

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