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Berlin (DE)

Berlin is the capital and at the same time one of three city-states of the Federal Republic of Germany. The population in 2014 is more than 3,5 million inhabitants and with an area of 892 km² it is the largest German city in extent; the average population density is 3.837/ km².

Of the three NACLIM cities, Berlin is the most continental one. It is located in the north-east of Germany. Beside some small rivers, there are two big rivers in Berlin. The Spree River is floating from south-east through the city centre to the western part of Berlin and flows into the Havel River, which runs from south to north. Characteristical for the surrounding of Berlin are extensive forests and the many lakes, which are relicts of the glacial period.
In the course of the urban development of Berlin, a multifaceted structure of buildings and open spaces has emerged. Berlin is characterised by a grown multi central structure with two main centres beside the specific district centres.

There is just a small difference in altitude; that leads to an only small-scale influence of the orology on the formation of the local urban climate. Of course affects the high-density areas in the city-center and in the different districts to differences in temperature in comparison to the large open landscape in the city and the agricultural areas in the urban hinterland. More than 40 percent of the urban area of Berlin are green spaces, some of them even in the centre, among others the Greater Tiergarten, the zoological garden and the 380 ha area of the closed central-airport of Berlin-Tempelhof.

Climate type

The climate of Berlin is a moderate climate (denoted Dfb in the Köppen map). It is at the transition of maritime to continental climate.

Challenges and goals

An overview of the main user requirements for mapping the impact of climate change on urban societies is given below.  As a basis for all other scenarios the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect is analysed for three scenarios:

  • present situation (as the baseline IPCC-conform for the period 1986-2005)
  • near future (2026-2045)
  • far future (2081-2100)

Berlin’s user requirements to other specific evaluations have been consolidated in 2013-2014:

1.   Scenarios linked to urban planning and existing urban plans/projects

Effect of the urban heat island (UHI) on urban planning both today and in the future;

  • Effect of greening, e.g. planting trees and unsealing soil in parks, gardens or in streets: changes in biotope factor for the 2 timeframes mentioned above;
  • Impacts of the change in albedo (reflectivity) of buildings (e.g. through change to green roof type);
  • Impacts of city expansion on climate change (e.g. projected Land Use Land Cover (LULC));

2.   Scenarios using projected population figures:

  • Effects of the densification of the population and development of new areas of settlement;
  • Impacts on the vulnerable population of the cities (e.g. focussing on young children in

schools and areas of elderly populations).

3.   Scenarios using the social infrastructure databases:

  • Impacts of the present as well as the future UHI effect on the different social infrastructure facilities for e.g. hospitals, schools, sports, child-care, rest homes etc.  for influencing the site selection for future locations

4.   Scenarios specific to end-users:

Predicting/projecting scenarios (inclusive seasonal effects (winter)) up to 2100 will help Berlin to produce future adaptation strategies downscaled from the VITO model outputs.  The most interesting period for the scenarios is 2025-2045, because this timeframe is still a part of future urban planning.

In order to run the relevant scenarios Berlin provides NACLIM scientists with all necessary information which are available (e.g. 3D city model, building and vegetation heights on a very detailed level,  on-going and planned urban projects, socio-economic data, etc.).

Maps and datasets

Information about maps and datasets can be found @data system of the WP4.2. Maps and results are available to project members and end-users only (internal area).


Jörn Welsch
III D 11
Senate Department for Urban Development and Environment
Fehrbelliner Platz 1
D-10707 Berlin

Tel:+49 30 90139 5256
E-mail: Joern.Welsch@we dont want

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